Domande-risposte

 

properties24 vi dà la risposta alle domande più frequenti sulla nostra società, sull'acquisto di immobili in Germania, e sui servizi connessi che offriamo. Fare clic su un argomento sottostante per visualizzare le domande e relative risposte. Se avete ulteriori quesiti, potete accedere alla apposita sezione cliccando su  Contact.

 

Domande generali

1. Devo essere  residente in Germania per acquistare un immobile in Germania?

2. Quali costi comporta l'acquisto di un immobile in Germania?

3. Quanto tempo occorre per avere il pieno possesso della proprietà?

4. Quali sono i costi di gestione di un immobile in Germania?

5. How much tax do I have to pay and where can I get advice?

6. What rental yields can I expect from a German property?

7. How much time will I need to invest in my property?

8. How can I increase rents?

9. How easy is it to find new tenants in Germany?

 

Property Management 

1. Who takes care of the property when I am not in Germany?

2. How do I find a reliable German property management company and what is included in the service?

 

Role and responsibilities of the Notary Public

1. Is a notary public necessary?

2. What is the role of the notary public?

3. Contract

 

Finance

1. Will I be able to source local finance for my German property?

2. How much capital will I need to get local finance?

 

 

1. Devo essere  residente in Germania per acquistare un immobile in Germania? top

I non residenti hanno gli stessi diritti dei cittadini tedeschi quando acquistano un immobile in Germania. Quindi chiunque abbia un passaporto valido e i fondi necessari, può acquistare immobili in Germania.

Per i cittadini non comunitari, possedere un immobile in Germania non dà il diritto di vivere o di immigrare nel paese. Per queste persone è necessario il visto turistico o la residenza permanente. I regolamenti e i requisiti di iscrizione saranno verificati presso l'ambasciata.

 

 2. Quali costi comporta l'acquisto di un immobile in Germania? top

I costi di transazione comprendono i costi di acquisto e rivendita di un immobile quali le spese notarili, le tasse di registrazione, le imposte, le commissioni di intermediazione, ecc

Trasferimento dei beni fiscali (imposta di bollo) – L'imposta sul passaggio di proprietà (Grunderwerbsteuer) va pagata circa quattro settimane dopo la stipula dell'atto di compravendita. Questa tassa pari al 3,5% - 4,5% (a seconda della localizzazione dell’immobile), è a carico del compratore.

Notaio – Le spese notarili sono stabilite per legge e dipendono dal tipo di contratto e dal valore della proprietà. Le spese notarili di solito vanno dallo 0,5 al 1,5% del prezzo di acquisto. La legge tedesca prevede che gli accordi di vendita e di acquisto siano autenticati.

Registrazione - L'acquirente di un immobile in Germania deve pagare la tassa di iscrizione alla Conservatoria (Grundbuch) come proprietario legale del bene acquistato. La tassa di iscrizione è stabilita dalla legge, dipende dal valore della proprietà e si aggira attorno allo 0,5% -1,2%.

 

3. Quanto tempo occorre per avere il pieno possesso della proprietà? top

Dal momento della firma notarile alla ratifica della conservatoria, possono passare diverse settimane. Questo però non accade quando si è titolari di un contratto di locazione. In questo caso il compratore assume pieno titolo di proprietario all’atto del pagamento del saldo per l’acquisto e la data è fissata nel contratto di compravendita.

 

4. Quali sono i costi di gestione di un immobile in Germania?  top

 

Il proprietario ha quattro tipi di spese correnti:    

- manutenzione

- gestione immobile   

- interessi (se avete un mutuo) 

- consulenze (legali, contabili, fiscali). 

Tutto il resto viene pagato dagli inquilini come oneri di servizio.

 

 

Tassa sulla proprietà – Le autorità comunali impongono una tassa annuale sui terreni e sugli immobili, nota come Grundsteuer. L'imposta è basata sul valore stimato della proprietà, a partire dal tasso di base federale dello 0,35% come riferimento. Vengono poi applicati a questo valore dei “moltiplicatori” per calcolare l'imposta finale dovuta. Questo moltiplicatore varia da comune a comune, ma la media per immobili residenziali è pari a 1,5%.

La tassa sulla proprietà viene rimborsata al proprietario dal conduttore separatamente oppure viene inclusa nelle spese relative agli oneri di servizio.

Affitti e spese di gestione - Società specializzate offrono servizi di gestione immobiliare, comprese la pulizia e la manutenzione. Esse inoltre offrono un servizio di ricerca-inquilino, a pagamento. Gli oneri di gestione ammontano a 15-22 euro per unità al mese (IVA esclusa).

Utilities (oneri di servizio) - Gli oneri di servizio comprendono l'assicurazione dell'edificio, gli oneri comunali (smaltimento rifiuti,  spese fisse per la fornitura energia elettrica e acqua), la pulizia delle parti comuni, il giardinaggio, il consumo di acqua e corrente elettrica, la manutenzione dell’impianto di riscaldamento e dell’antenna TV, la pulitura delle canne fumarie, la rimozione dei rifiuti e della neve ecc. Tali oneri sono costi aggiuntivi pari a circa 0,5-2 euro al mq per mese e devono essere pagati dal conduttore se l'appartamento o la casa è affittata. 

Costituzione del fondo di ammortamento (sinking fund) - La partecipazione a questo fondo è obbligatoria quando l’appartamento fa parte di un condominio, e di solito si aggira su 0,75- 1,5 euro al mq per mese. L’obbligo non sussiste quando si ha la proprietà dell’intero fabbricato.

 

 

5. How much tax do I have to pay and where can I get advice? top

Income generated in Germany is taxed in Germany. Although income tax rates can be marginally higher than in other countries, there are substantial (virtual) expenses that can be deducted from your income (e.g. building depreciation, interest payments and other expenses related to the property) which will reduce your tax bill to below what you would pay for an equivalent property somewhere else.

In any case we are neither tax advisors nor experts. We strongly advise that tax related questions should be taken care of by tax professionals. properties24 can help you finding an English speaking accountant for dealing with your tax affairs.

 

6. What rental yields can I expect from a German property? top

The rental yields are dependent on property type/condition and area. Blocks of flats in less prosperous areas yield as high as 6-10%. More affluent areas can yield from 5-7%. On individual apartments the yields can fall to around 4-8% dependent on the location and condition of the property. At properties24 we focus on refurbished properties in Germany’s newer states, as we believe this is the most attractive property market in Europe, given its high yields, low financing costs and high affordability.

 

7. How much time will I need to invest in my property? top

It’s up to you. Most investors like to get involved in the decision making process, but if you choose to limit your participation, we can manage much of the process for you and put you in touch with relevant contacts in Germany. It is advisable to plan for at least two trips to Germany in order to find the right property and to sign the purchase documents. 

 

8. How can I increase rents? top

The term of a residential lease contract in Germany is usually indefinite. It is up to the digression of the landlord to set the rent for apartments to be rented out at market level. For an occupied flat(s) landlords can increase the rent by a maximum of 20% every 3 year period until the market rent level has been reached (many rents in Germany are significantly below market level). If the landlord modernises a flat, he can increase the rent by 11% of the modernisation costs. As an alternative to the annual rent review the landlord can agree a step-up rent with the tenant.

 

9. How easy is it to find new tenants in Germany? top

As in many other countries, properties are usually advertised via the internet and through the local media. A good property at the right price can attract tenants within 6 – 10 weeks, bearing in mind that in Germany tenants have to give 3 months’ notice before vacating a property.

It is important to note that the vast majority of Germans rent their homes (70%+). Many people live in the same property long-term (the average tenancy period exceeds 8 years). An advantage of the longevity of tenancies is that people tend to take good care of the property because they see it as their home. 

 

Property Management

1. Who takes care of the property when I am not in Germany? top

The property can be given into the care of a property management company. On apartments this is mandatory when these belong to a partitioned apartment house. The cost for property management ranges from €15-€22 per month for an apartment. Rental management is separate from general house management and can be transferred to an agency for a fee that is agreed upon by both parties.

 

2. How do I find a reliable German property management company and what is included in the service? top

We work closely with a number of carefully selected English speaking property management companies. Their services comprise re-lettings, running tenant accounts, overseeing maintenance work, rent reviews, representation of the landlord in legal cases, document administration, and consulting the landlord in all aspects of the strategic property management.

 

Role and responsibilities of the notary public

1. Is a notary public necessary? top

In accordance with the German Civil Code, all real estate transactions have to be signed at the office of the notary public. The notary public is a solicitor, who acts on behalf of the government and is authorised to certify deeds.

 

2. What is the role of the notary public? top

He/she prepares the deed between the selling and the buying party and an appointment is arranged at the office of the notary public to complete the transaction. All legal documents are checked. The check includes a check of passports and authorisation documentation (if a person is acting on behalf of someone else or a company). At the actual signing ceremony the notary reads the contract of sale verbatim and is required to be certain that both parties fully understand its content. The buyer may ask questions and interrupt the proceedings if a clause isn't completely understood. The contract is signed by the vendor, investor/buyer and the notary public. The deed is irrevocable.

 

3. Contract top

The contract spells out the obligations of each party and the measures to be taken in the event of default. Once it is signed, the notary registers the change of ownership with the municipal government and enters the property in the land register.

Always ask for a copy of the purchase contract before going to the notary, reviewing it carefully and having it translated if necessary. Prepare any questions you have in advance, don't hesitate to ask them and allow sufficient time for getting full answers.

The parties have complete freedom to decide on payment terms. In most cases the buyer has to obtain financing. Therefore the seller agrees to a priority notice in the land register which protects the buyer from other, unexpected sales activities on the part of the seller, such as trying to sell the property to somebody else for a better price.

The land register is located at the district courthouse and is the central document for a piece of property, with all necessary information on its ownership. An actual change in ownership can occur only when an entry has been made in this land register, and only when previous mortgages have been taken care of and the tax office has certified that the seller has no property taxes outstanding.

Very often the purchase price is first paid into an escrow account maintained by the notary (Notaranderkonto) and transferred to the seller only when the land register entry is complete.

The notary is not responsible the correctness of the owner's property description. That is the buyer's job. The seller isn't obliged to point out any major defects that should have been obvious to the buyer, though he should be required to describe any hidden defects.

A copy of the most current land register entries can be obtained on application to the district court. However, only persons with a legitimate need to know, such as the owner or the notary, are eligible to make this application.

The register also spells out the rights of any third parties; those, for example, of tenants. Such tenants can't bar the sale of the property, but the new owner is bound by any lease arrangements to which the previous owner agreed. Hence, the new owner can't evict a tenant before the lease expires.

 

Finance

1. Will I be able to source local finance for my German property? top

We have built up strong relationships with local German banks. Before approaching these for a mortgage you must have already found the property you wish to purchase. When determining the loan-to-value (LTV) figure, they will take into account factors such as amount of capital, property income, location, condition of the building, mortgage volume, whether you are seeking recourse or non-recourse financing, and your relationship with the bank.

 

2. How much capital will I need to get local finance? top

The loan-to-value figure varies typically between 40% and 80% of the purchase price. Transaction costs have to be paid with equity capital and cannot be financed. It is important that equity is available for the balance.

 

 

 

Disclaimer

The above information is given as a guide only and is not intended to form part of any contract or German purchase deed. It is intended as a simple guide to the German conveyancing process. No legal warranties are given or representations made as to its accuracy.

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